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Uh-oh, it looks like your Internet Explorer is out of date. For a better shopping experience, please upgrade now. Javascript is not enabled in your browser. Enabling JavaScript in your browser will allow you to experience all the features of our site. Learn how to enable JavaScript on your browser. The Soviet boycott of the Olympic Games is explained as the result of a complex series of events and policies that culminated in a strategic decision to not participate in Los Angeles. Using IR framework, D'Agati developes and argues for the concept of surrogate wars as an alternative means for conflict between states.

He is a researcher of nationalism, international organizations, and the role of sport in international politics. The Baltic nations of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, for example, participated as independent countries.

Theoretical Literature Highlighted in this Study Press Nationalism The press nationalism model asserts that the American media have allowed their political leaders, especially the executive branch, to dictate foreign news coverage about the communist world. Gans argued that the American media are inclined to cover some foreign news stories over others. Among the topics more likely to be reported are stories that involve the United States, involve countries with extensive dealings with the United States, and somehow suggest a communist country has been weakened because of an event or action.

Perhaps the most important point to remember is that government representatives define what these events mean. There has been substantial research in this area of press nationalism, and many studies have demonstrated that U.

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Dickson examined news coverage of the removal of president Manuel Noriega from Panama and found that U. The government especially targeted Noriega as an international drug dealer, but offered no substantive details to support the claim. Nevertheless, Dickson found that the media dutifully reported these allegations. A separate study by Kieh added that the media also ignored the long-standing political affiliation that the U.

In another study, Dickson explored the coverage of the elections in Nicaragua during the mids. However, the tone of media coverage was different when it dealt with another Central American country, El Salvador. A study by McCoy found that a consistent theme to reporting from and about El Salvador was the American-sponsored position that it was a fledgling democracy under attack by well-armed rebels on both sides of the political spectrum. Other research showed that press nationalism also influenced coverage of other parts of the world. Mowlana reviewed media coverage of the Iran and the Shah.

The study found that the Shah was routinely characterized as a benevolent leader while the Islamic insurgency was a reaction to the economic and social improvements taking place in Iran. Chang authored two studies looking at U. S relations with China. One found that as President Reagan began shifting American political interests away from Taiwan and toward China more news about the latter appeared in the American media Chang, The second study noted that whenever U. The propaganda model The propaganda model espoused by Herman and Chomsky also was relevant to this study.

They suggested that the government and other dominant private interests controlled news flow. One of the primary effects was a reduction in the number of voices helping to frame news coverage. They identified five filters that they argued had assisted the government and selected private interests in shutting out opposition voices. The first two filters highlighted the business relationships that media organizations have with the government and advertisers. Herman and Chomsky did not favor these arrangements because they believed that these opened the door for the media to seek out beneficial financial deals at the expense of critical reporting of these public institutions and private companies.

The final three filters deserve more attention because they are more closely connected to this research. Official sources comprised the third filter. Government agencies and spokespeople were important because they were a consistent supplier of news and assisted in making the media appear objective in their news coverage. In other words, according to Herman and Chomsky, the media literally could go to one place to get their information and prepare their stories for dissemination.

Too often, however, this arrangement meant that no outside sources needed to be or were contacted.

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The fourth filter was 'flak. The final filter was anti-communism. Herman and Chomsky contended that the easy-to-level charge that a news organization was too far left of center acted as a powerful limitation.

1984 Los Angeles Olympics

Compounding this problem, the authors argued, was that the charge that a journalist or news outlet was "red" needed no evidence in order to be supported. They noted that simply the fear of being labeled "red" affected the media. Finally, they claimed that with the passage of time it had become perfectly acceptable to identify the good guys and bad guys in a debate and to root for the good guys. In other words, a kind of morality play was at work. Herman and Chomsky concluded that the propaganda model allowed for the government and other dominant private interests especially corporate giants to somehow be coddled and protected in news coverage.

Criticism of these organizations was muted, and those individuals and groups prepared to offer negative commentary about these institutions simply were not allowed to regularly appear in the news.

Journal of Cold War Studies 17 (2015), 3

Framing Framing was the third theoretical underpinning to this study. Entman suggested that frames are constructed from and embodied in the keywords, metaphors, concepts, symbols and visual images that are emphasized within news narratives. Framing allows for a single interpretation to dominate news coverage; all other themes become inferior or non-existent. He noted that government officials were especially adept at developing news frames that they hoped the media would adopt, which quite often they did.

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For example, Entman examined U. In sum, the shooting down of a Korean Air Lines plane by a Soviet military aircraft was a deliberate act that may have been approved by the Soviet government. However, the U. There are areas in which these theories or models overlap.

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First, there is recognition that government officials are the primary sources of news. They are powerful enough to both make it and frame it. What flows from this is an "official" interpretation of events that the American media are quick to pick up. The U. The media's unwillingness to seek out additional voices to help frame news coverage compounds the problem. Employing the "news net" approach suggested by Tuchman means that gathering information becomes a sure thing. Selected individuals and institutions are guaranteed to provide material that is presumed to be newsworthy because it flows from a credible, legitimate, and frequently used source.

But this arrangement also allows the source to determine what kind of information, and how much, is released to the media at a particular time. Thus, in the end, the reliance on a limited set of sources, however credible they might be, ensures that the public receives a consistent spin on the news. Espy suggested that two of the reasons are the IOC's refusal to allow athletes to compete as individuals, instead of as members of a country, and the continuing use of national flags and national anthems, which provide a "nation-state" atmosphere to the Games. Moreover, television added fuel to the political fire. The dramatic increase in rights fees paid by television networks to ensure exclusive broadcast rights places pressures on producers and announcers to build a show that millions of people will watch. One way to do that is to deconstruct the complexity of the Olympic Games many nations, many sports, multiple events, etc. Thus, as Lucas noted, the networks discuss winning and losing, while the IOC struggles to promote mutual respect among athletes. The networks also praise the establishment of new records, and the IOC continues to insist that athletes should take part in the Games for enjoyment and not as a means to generate any material benefit Segrave and Chu, Methodology A census of stories appearing in both newspapers beginning with the London Games and continuing through the Seoul Games was content analyzed.

Moreover, the author could find no index prior to for the Los Angeles Times. There was such an index for the New York Times.

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It was the author's opinion that lacking an index made it impractical if not impossible to generate a sample for the Los Angeles newspaper. Any story, including editorials, cartoons, features, and reports, appearing in any section of the newspaper relating to the on-going Olympic Games was coded.

As mentioned, the author lacked an index for the Los Angeles newspaper; thus, the author needed to roll through microfilm in order to capture the stories examined in this content analysis. The author concedes that this unorthodox method might have allowed for some Olympic Games accounts to be inadvertently overlooked. The coding periods began the day of the particular Games' opening ceremonies and concluded the day after the closing ceremonies. The London Olympics were included in this study, despite the Soviet Union's decision not to participate in them. Unlike , the year of the Soviet-led boycott of the Los Angeles Olympics, the Soviets in chose not to respond to an invitation to compete.

In other words, were their athletic achievements or failures documented in the newspapers?