In Kamishibai a street performer uses Emakimono "picture scrolls" to convey the story of the play. Audiences typically included children who would buy candy from the street performer providing his source of income. Unlike American propaganda that often focused on the enemy, Japanese wartime "National Policy" Kamishibai usually focused on themes of self-sacrifice for the nation, the heroism of martyrs, or instructional messages such as how to respond to an air-raid warning.
The Shinmin no Michi or Path of Subjects described what the Japanese should aspire to be, and depicted Western culture as corrupt. The booklet Read This and the War is Won , printed for distribution to the army, not only discussed tropical fighting conditions but also why the army fought. The Ministry of Education, led by a general, sent out propagandistic textbooks. Similarly, textbooks were revised in occupied China to instruct Chinese children in heroic Japanese figures.
Even prior to the war, military education treated science as a way to teach that the Japanese were a morally superior race, and history as teaching pride in Japan, with Japan not being only the most splendid nation, but the only splendid one. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, elementary schools were renamed "National Schools" and charged to produce "children of the Emperor" who would sacrifice themselves for the nation.
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As the war went on, teachers lay more emphasis on the children's destiny as warriors; when one child grew airsick on a swing, a teacher told him he would not be a good fighter pilot. Girls graduating on Okinawa heard a speech by their principal on how they must work hard to avoid shaming the school before they were inducted into the Student Corps to act as nurses. News reports were required to be official state announcements, read exactly, and as the war in China went on, even entertainment programs addressed wartime conditions. The announcement of the war was made by radio, soon followed by an address from Tojo, who informed the people that in order to annihilate the enemy and ensure a stable Asia, a long war had to be anticipated.
To take advantage of the radio's adaptability to events, "Morning Addresses" were made twice a month for schools. Short wave radios were used to broadcast anti-European propaganda to Southeast Asia even before the war. Broadcasts to India urged revolt. Tokyo Rose 's broadcasts were aimed at American troops.
In an effort to exacerbate racial tensions in the United States, the Japanese enacted what was titled, "Negro Propaganda Operations. Broadcasts focused on U. POWs with artistic strengths were used in plays and or songs that were broadcast back home. Leaflets in China asked why they were not better defended after all the money they had spent.
Leaflets were dropped by airplane on the Philippines, Malaya, and Indonesia, urging them to surrender as the Japanese would be better than the Europeans. Slogans were used throughout Japan for propaganda purpose.
Kokutai , meaning the uniqueness of the Japanese people in having a leader with spiritual origins, was officially promulgated by the government, including a text book sent about by the Ministry of Education. In , the pamphlet Kokutai no Hongi was written to explain the principle.
In , Taisei Yokusankai Imperial Rule Assistance Association was founded by the prime minister to "restore the spirit and virtues of old Japan". In , Shinmin no Michi was written to instruct the Japanese what to aspire to. The final letters of kamikaze pilots expressed, above all, that their motivations were gratitude to Japan and to its Emperor as the embodiment of kokutai.
Intellectuals at an "overcoming modernity" conference proclaimed that prior to the Meiji Restoration , Japan has been a classless society under a benevolent emperor, but the restoration had plunged the nation into Western materialism an argument that ignored commercialism and ribald culture in the Tokugawa era , which had caused people to forget their nature, which the war would enable them to reclaim.
Baseball, jazz, and other Western profligate ways were singled out in government propaganda to be abandoned for a pure spirit of sacrifice. This Yamato spirit would allow them to overcome the vast disproportion in fighting materiel. This also brought them a sense of racial superiority to the Asian peoples they claimed to liberate that did much to undermine Japanese propaganda for racial unity. This race was, indeed, to be further improved with physical fitness and social-welfare programs, and population policies to increase their number.
Despite its military strength being dependent on industrialization, the regime glorified rural life. The National Spiritual Mobilization Movement was formed from 74 organizations to rally the nation for a total war effort. It carried out such tasks as instructing schoolchildren on the "Holy war in China", and having women roll bandages for the war effort.
Even prior to the war, the organization Sanpo existed to explain the need to meet production quotas, even if sacrifices were needed; it did so with rallies, lectures, and panel discussion, and also set up programs to assist workers' lives to attract membership. Among the early victories was one that secured an oil field, giving Japan its own source for the first time; propaganda exulted that Japan was no longer a "have-not" nation. In , as the American industrial juggernaut produced material superiority for the American forces, calls were made for a more war-like footing on part of the population, in particular in calls for increases in war materials.
The government urged Japanese people to do without basic necessities privation. For example, magazines gave advice on economizing on food and clothing as soon as war broke out with China. After the outbreak of war with the United States, early suggestions that the people enjoyed the victories too much and were not prepared for the long war ahead were not taken, and so early propaganda did not contain warnings. In , propaganda endeavoured to warn the Japanese people of disasters to come, and install in them a spirit as in Saipan, to accept more privation for the war.
Accounts of self-sacrificing privation were common in the press: a teacher dressed in tatters who refused to wear a new shirt because all his friends are likewise tattered, and officers and governmental officials who made do without any form of heating. Like Nazi Germany 's demands for Lebensraum , Japanese propaganda complained of being kept trapped in its own home waters. The news of Hitler's success in Europe, followed by Mussolini's joining in the conflict, produced the slogan "Don't miss the bus!
On the outbreak of war, Tojo declared that as long as there remains a spirit of loyalty and patriotism under this policy, there was nothing to fear. An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus explicitly called for such expansion; although a secret document for use of the policy-makers, it laid out explicitly what is elsewhere hinted at in. This was also justified on the grounds that the resource-poor Japanese could not count on any sources of raw material that they did not control themselves.
The samurai code bushido was pressed into service for indoctrination in militarism. As taught, it produced a reckless indifference to the technological side of warfare. Japan's production was a fraction of America's, making equipment difficult. Conceptually, it unites the notions of heart, mind, and spirit: It sees these three elements as being indivisible from one other.
Researchers are beginning to break down conceptual barriers and explore what artists, writers, mystics, and dreamers of many cultures have long acknowledged: the mysterious tie between heart and mind, a. Swanson is a permanent fellow at the Nanzan Institute of Religion and Culture NIRC , which in began bringing together experts in religion, philosophy, and the sciences.
They aim to break down barriers and connect like-minded areas of knowledge that other academics consider distinct, ultimately attempting to understand the ineffable, the mystery of humanness.
- On Raven Wings.
- THE JAPANESE SPIRIT!
- Handbook of Position Location: Theory, Practice and Advances (IEEE Series on Digital & Mobile Communication).
Testuya Sato, director of the Earth Simulator at the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, uses supercomputers to make predictions about natural events like earthquakes and typhoons, as well as global warming. For the first time, urban populations had the means and leisure time to support new mass culture. This increasing interest in pursuing recreational activities developed an array of new industries, many found in an area known as Yoshiwara. This center of pleasure and luxury became a destination for the elite and wealthy merchants who wished to flaunt their fortune.
For many who inhabited and worked in this region, maintaining the illusion of grandeur was the only way of supporting their businesses. Yoshiwara was home to many girls and women who provided services to lure guests into returning. These included dancing, singing, playing an instrument, gossiping, or providing companionship, which usually meant prostitution. Girls were often indentured to the brothels by their parents between the ages of seven and When the girl was old enough and had completed her training, she would become a courtesan herself and work her way up the ranks.
The alleged cost of living at Yoshiwara perpetuated the cycle of abuse as women were forced to pay the cost of rent, clothing, make-up, gifts, and even their work contract. Another was if she managed to be successful to buy her own freedom. This did not occur very often. Many women died of sexually transmitted diseases or from failed abortions before completing their contracts. A significant number served out their contracts and married a client, went into other employment including other forms of prostitution , or returned to their family homes.
The area was damaged by an extensive fire in , then nearly wiped out by an earthquake in It remained in business, however, until prostitution was outlawed by the Japanese government in after World War II. By , Moronobu was so successful that he began to sign his work—the first of the book illustrators to do so. He was a prolific illustrator who worked in a wide variety of genres and developed an influential style of portraying female beauties. Most significantly, he began to produce illustrations, not just for books, but as single-sheet images which could stand alone or be used as part of a series.