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Table 1. Commercial products traded from Roman Egypt. Table 3.
Commercial products traded from Arabia, Persis, Gedrosia. Table 4. Commercial products traded from Overseas Ports to Roman Egypt. Egypt was suppliying the city of Rome with almost a third of its annual grain needs by the mid first century A.
Large ships were coming to Puteoli, in the Bay of Naples for transhipping of grain into smaller vessels for the further distribution through Ostia to Rome Amphorae, simple wheel-thrown ceramic jars with two handles, were the all-purpose storage container of the Greco-Roman world. Amphorae were used in antiquity to transport a wide range of goods, and analysis of their contents provides abundant and important data about the nature, range, and scale of Roman trade. Residues found inside amphorae indicate that the most important commercial goods shipped around the Roman world were olive oil, wine, marine products, fish sauce garum —a distinctive Roman seasoning , and preserved fruits.
Each commodity was given a distinctive type makes the content easily identified. Some of the amphorae were labeled and inscripted about the content or stamped by the producers which helped researchers to establish the origins and distribution patterns.
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Pompeian ceramic works were made of volcanic red clay. Its distinctive colour provides researchers a great help for discovering trade links of Pompeii. It should be indicated that pottery studies have been a part of intense study in Europe while it has been least studied in the Eastern Mediterranean: therefore, we only see a limited part of the whole picture According to a study elaborated by Pucci 26 Pompeii shows a strong trading network with the Eastern Mediterranean as well as with some Italian regions.
The study is done on an assamblage of 1, terra sigillata that consist of 29 per cent of Campanian, 35 per cent of Italian, 23 per cent of the Eastern Mediterranean, 12 per cent of Southern Gaul and an insignificant number of African origin vessels. Another excavated assamblage in Pompeii which is belong to the final phase of the ancient town demonstrates the presence of different sigillata.
Under the light of this information we may conclude that commercial activities reached a wider area, probably a more active phase, during the last 30 years of Pompeii 6. Figure 3. The study conducted by Eric C. De Sena, Janne P. According to the study, household items were dominantly local or regional in other words Pompeian or Campanian between c.
However, in the second half of the first century A. At this later time, more than one-third of the pottery was imported from regional, extra-regional Italian and provincial sources including North Africa, Gaul and the Aegean 7. Table 5. Beside household items, the assamblage found in Pompeii also includes utilitarian and cooking vessels. Amount of African cookware, Aegean cookware and Pompeian cookware are demonstrated on Table 6.
The numbers do not give us price amount of the imported cookwares but supplies a general idea on demand 6. Amphorae is a vessel which was particularly used to supply wine, olive oil and fish sauce Garum. Italy, especially the Tyrrhenian coast, between Etruria and the Bay of Naples, was a very strong wine producer both for domestic and foreign markets 7.
Campanian wine was one of the major products transferred for the market of Rome. Port of Puteoli and Ostia were closely linked to Rome in terms of Trade. Close distance between Pompeii and port of Puteoli facilitated transportation of Pompeian products to Rome. From these facts we can assume that wine trade was very important for the economy of Pompeii.
An assambage excavated in Ostia, a major port of Rome, provides evidence to intensity and type of wine that traded. As seen on the Table 7, the wine amphoara assemblage contains of amphorae from early Augustan period. Approximately 28 per cent of the assamblage consisted of distinctive red clayed Pompeian amphorae type. Sorrentine amphorae, on the other hand, demonstrated the highest rate within the entire amphorae types.
Table 7. Wine amphorae assamblage found in Ostia, Ostia The number of different amphorae types provides us information about the type of wine consumed in Pompeii.
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According to study elaborated by Eric C. Table 8 illustrates general proportion of the wine amphorae belong to different time periods of Pompeii. As seen on the Table 8, while the percentage of regional amphorae dropped off sharply in the last phase of Pompeii, an increase in central Italian amphorae, as well as the slight entrence of Gaulish, Aegean, Anatolian and Hispanic wine observed.
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Importation of wine to Pompeii seems to be occured for the last 30 years of Pompeii, prior the eruption 7. Campania region was the major exporter of wine to Roman Egypt and further distribution of Campanian wine was conducted from Egyptian ports to distant lands Beside Egypt there are findings shows us that Campanian wine was also famous in Gaul region. As an example, a sunk Roman ship on the Southern coast of France, near Marseilles, which is belong to B. Furthermore, Pompeian wine amphorae were also found in North Africa By the eruption of Vesuvius, vineyards in the Southern Campania had a big damage.
Resulted in a serious problem for production of Campanian wine and its trade. Beside agricultural activity, the workshops ceased pottery production in the Vesuvious region and caused a decrease on Italian trade since the Campanian potteries used as a trade vessel for transportation The fish sauce, also called garum, was typical to Pompeian cusine. It was used for seasoning foods in Roman World. Garum was also kept and transferred within amphorae vessels like wine.
The Eric C. De Sena and Janne P. As seen on the Table 9 North Africa stayed sole source of fish-sauce importation until the Iberian products introduced at the end of the first century BC. Table 9. The largest installation of garum production was located at Lixus, Morocco. Pliny the Elder notes that Black See, Pontus, was another prominent area for the production of garum Scholar Curtis R. Points out that garum was also produced in Italy, including Pompeii itself Pliny the Elder also highligts that Pompeii, too, was famous for its garum and at least two shops in Pompeii produced this seasoning and sold in small ceramic bowls which shows us that amphorae was not necessary for local distribution of garum 29, Ancient literary and archaeological sources give the information that immense production of olive oil existed in many parts of Italy, especially in Northern Campania, Latium and Etruria.
Sea and overland routes of olive oil transportation communicated with the Bay of Naples 7. Olive oil production was widely practised industry in Pompeii as well. Oil pressing mechanisms used to exract oil from green olives was found in Pompeian and Herculaneum houses as well as in the surrounding villas of Mount Vesuvius. Even though intense production of olive oil all around Italy, oil had to imported from Spain and Africa to meet the high deman of the city of Rome Regarding discovery of Roman olive oil in archeological sites, the amphorae fragments which used to carry Roman olive oil founded at South Arabian trade port Qana and Indian trade port Tamil can be shown as an example Roman people created a significant demand onto luxury and exotic products.
The indulgence into the luxury was maybe the reason for Roman traders to establish distant trade routes and commercial relationships as far as Asia and India. Ivory works, handicraft glassware products, silk clothes and clothings, spices, expensive dyes, incense are introduced some of the luxury products Roman people used Glass making technology first appeared in Egypt and Mesopotamia in the second millennium B. This early glass making was based on cast of form on a core, which is more labour-intense, rather than blowing technique 2. South Asia, on the other hand, had a flourishing glass industry and widely distributed its products.
Glass workshops in Syria and Alexandria used glass-blowing technique which is a method invented in these area in the 1st century BC. In the first millennium glass making technology arrived into the Italian peninsula. A huge glass industry developed very rapidly at Rome in the mid-first century and soon after Roman glass industry had a reputation of being technologically the most advanced one and its products were in demand as far away as China 2, Glassware was used for tablewares, perfume containers, funerary urns, transport vessels, the tesserae for mosaics, and even windowpanes in Roman World.
Although blown glass production method was the most popular and widespread type, Roman glassmakers still preferred labor-intensive processes for luxury glasswares 2. Cameo glass was a luxury form of glassware which innovated by Romans. The technique is not entirely understood by researchers but basicly it was a duplicate effect of glass given by gemstone cameos which combine two different colours withing the layers.
Difficulty of cameo glass production made it an expensive luxury product 2. Highly prized cameo was one of the glass remnants found in Pompeii Roman glassware products are excavated in several archeological sites. As an example the so-called Begram treasures, in Afghanistan, includes Roman glassware products belong to 1st century A. The glassware products in Begram came from Egypt and the Mediterranean world via Indian Ocean maritime routes The painted glass goblets from Begram presents typical scenes from Eastern Roman life, including hunting, fishing and harvesting dates Commodities made of ivory including chairs, tables, chests, statues and whips were accepted as luxuries Details belong to ivory trade on the Periplus of the Erytheranean Sea indicates that ivory was available in some ports such as at Mundus port in Somali or at the Red Sea port Adulis which were used to be visited by Roman merchants.
It was again Somali and Ethiopian people used to bring ivory in large quantities to Adulis One of the most beautiful objects found in Pompeii is the ivory carving of a woman.
The material which it was made-elephant ivory- makes it clear that it was imported from India. As a supporting fact, a hoard discovered at Begram in modern Afganistan incluedes a number of ivory carvings that are similar to the one found in Pompeii. This similarity of ivory goods found in Pompeii and Begram gives a visible evidence to international trade links which connected distant lands of the ancient world in the 1st century AD Figure 4.
Ivory carving statuette found in Pompeii, before A. The ivory female, Figure 4, found in excavations of Pompeii indicating that ivory, too, was included in trade before A. In fact, two statuettes found at Ter and Bhokardan in India are remarkably similar to the one found in Pompeii Their close style stands as a proof of trade between western Roman World and India. Similarly long ivory gaming dice from South Asia have been found at various sites in western and central India, in Gandhara, and at Pompeii.
The textile industry was the largest economic sector in pre-industrial society apart from food. Wool was the main textile fiber of the Roman World. Woolen products were way more important than flax products whereas silk and cotton were accepted luxury goods and mostly used by wealthy Pompeians. Complex wool spinning and weaving processes require an industrial knowledge. Only some certain ancient cities gained textile production know-how and this specialty led ancient towns to trade eachother. Some of the Italan cities such as Parma, Mutina, Altinum, Apulia and Calabria held reputation for fine woolen cloth production Our knowledge regarding textile use and production habits of ancient Romans is obtained mostly from epigraphical sources and texts.